Subsequent to the publication of my book in December 2007, Dr. William Wyman Fiske, a noted genealogist from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, proposed an ancestral origin for Matthew Whipple of Bocking, Essex County England, the progenitor of the family in my book Fiske’s proposed lineage begins with Thomas Whipple, parentage unknown, born about 1475. He was a Bladesmith in Bishops Stortford in Hertfordshire County (which borders Essex County) and died between 1535 and 1537. His son Thomas, also a Bladesmith, was born about 1510 and lived in Newport and Braintree, both in Essex County. He married Margaret (____) who was buried in Bocking 13 June 1577. Fiske and others believe Margaret was the mother of Matthew who would have been about 17 when she died. Specific evidence does not confirm this lineage and it remains a working hypothesis.
Thomas would have been about 34 when Henry VIII assumed the throne and lived during the years England separated from the Catholic Church. His son Thomas lived during the reign of Edward VI when massive changes, including translating the Bible into English and holding services in English were adopted. He was also alive when Queen Mary tried to return the Church to the Catholic faith. Matthew grew up when Queen Elizabeth returned the English Church to its new Protestant teachings.
Matthew Jr., and John were there when English Puritans made their political emergence in the 1600s – the same time period they began their epic migrations to the New World. Here were a vibrant, spiritually energized, hopeful people determined to set a new agenda for their English Church. They worked to see their beloved English kingdom move forward into the Biblically enlightened Reformation sweeping western Christendom. They were the movers and shakers of their time.
Our Whipple ancestors lived during the years of the Reformation adapting to the significant, continuous, and contested changes in the practice of religion in England. Following is a brief history of those years.
Henry VIII The English Church Separated from Papal Authority
When Henry VIII (1509-1547) broke with Rome, there was a professing Church of Christ in the land. It had great wealth and was run by an army of Bishops, Abbots, Friars, Priests, Monks, and Nuns. But for any useful and soul-saving purposes it was practically dead. Except for a few scattered copies of Wycliffe’s translation of the Vulgate (the principal Latin version of the Bible, prepared in the 4th century and later adopted as the official text for the Roman Catholic Church), there were no English Bibles so priests and people knew scarcely anything about God’s truth and the way to be saved.
The clergy did little more than say masses, offer up pretended sacrifices, repeat Latin prayers, and chant Latin hymns (which the people did not understand), hear confessions, grant absolution (a formal declaration by a priest that a person’s sins are forgiven), give extreme unction (anointing the sick, especially when administered to the dying), and take money to get dead people out of purgatory (a place or state of suffering by the souls of Catholic sinners who are atoning for their sins before going to heaven). Preaching was happenstance. Quarterly sermons were prescribed but not insisted on. While mass were said every Sunday, sermons might be omitted for twenty Sundays in succession, and nobody was blamed.
Henry is known for his political struggles with Rome which ultimately led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Royal support for the English Reformation (a 16th century movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Church, ending in the establishment of the Reformed and Protestant Churches) began with his heirs, the devout Edward VI and the renowned Elizabeth I, whilst daughter Mary I temporarily reinstated papal authority over England.
Edward VI, the Boy King Who Enabled the English Reformation
During the reign of Edward VI (1547-1553), England’s first Protestant King, the Reformation movement grew in strength. The Anglican Church was transformed into a recognizably Protestant body with reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and the mass and required compulsory services in English. The architect of these reforms was Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose Book of Common Prayer has proved lasting. The English Great Bible was issued in 1536. In 1543, the government ordered that a Bible chapter was to be read in English in the daily services. The Epistle (a book of the New Testament in the form of a letter from an Apostle) and Gospels (the record of Christ’s life and teaching in the first four books of the New Testament) were ordered to be read in English in 1547. An English Litany (a series of petitions used in church services, usually recited by the clergy and responded to by the people) was issued in 1544, and “The Order of the Communion” in 1548, which restored the cup to the laity (lay people). All this led to the first English Book of Common Prayer in the year 1549.
Queen “Bloody” Mary Restored Roman Catholicism in England
Queen Mary (1553-1558) restored England to Roman Catholicism after succeeding Edward VI. In the process, she had almost 300 religious dissenters burned at the stake in The Marian Persecution (the persecution of religious reformers, Protestants, and other dissenters for their beliefs). The excesses of this period were recorded in John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs published in English in 1563. Foxe is author of the epithet “Bloody Mary.” Her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her successor and half-sister, Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
In January 1549 the Book of Common Prayer was introduced accompanied by an Act of Uniformity. It moved away from the medieval liturgies (public worship) and eliminated most of the unscriptural practices. Written in English, it could be used by everybody and its comparatively small bulk made it far more usable than the previous ponderous volumes. The simplicity of its arrangement and the more continuous arrangement for the reading of Holy Scripture (the sacred writings of Christianity contained in the Bible) made it more of an open book. The large amount of Scripture included in the Lessons (a passage from the Bible read aloud during a church service), Epistles, Gospels, Canticles (hymn or chant forming a regular part of a church service), and Psalms showed how the religious feelings of the Reformers found their natural support in the Word of God. The omission of old superstitious customs and the elimination of such doctrines as the Invocation of Saints (asking (praying) to saints and angels for their prayers) was welcomed by the Reformists.
In the those days when Church and State were identical terms men welcomed a book which created a uniform type of service and thus tended to develop a national feeling.
There was also opposition to its use. Peasants disliked any change in religious customs or teaching and some Reformers objected to the appearance of Lutheranism in the Holy Communion Office. Others disliked it because it was little different from the mass. Also it presented the structure of the Holy Communion Office in a way that could be interpreted in two completely opposite ways: In a way that any upholder of the Reformation will agree with, and in a manner agreeable to those who are entirely opposed to the Reformation.
Examples: The title of the Office of Holy Communion refers to the service both as the “Holy Communion” and as the “mass.” The clergy could use a “vestment,”(a robe) i.e., the Chasuble (a sleeveless outer vestment worn by a priest when celebrating mass), which symbolized the old doctrine of the mass, or “a cope,” (a long, loose cloak worn by a priest or bishop on ceremonial occasions), which had no doctrinal significance. The Holy Table was described as the “Altar” and also as “God’s board.” Hence the different interpretations. Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556 burned at the stake by Queen Mary) and those responsible for its issue, interpreted it in a Protestant manner while Bishop Stephen Gardiner (1493-1555) and others used the service with the old ceremonies and interpreted it in the old way.
There followed three significant steps leading up to a truly reformed liturgy. First, the order was made to destroy stone altars and replace them with wooden tables. Secondly, Cranmer issued his Defence of the True and Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament in which he set out his understanding of the nature of the sacrament and refuted the errors that had grown up contrary to scripture. Thirdly, work progressed on the new Articles of Religion which were finally published in 1553.
When Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, she was the only sovereign Matthew and Joan had known. Under her reign, except for the time of the Armada, they knew nothing but peace. So there was great excitement in their home when Janis VI, King of Scots, was announced as James I, England’s new King. Other royal pomp the family may have witnessed was the investitures of Henry and later Charles as Prince of Wales.
King James I (1603-1625) and the King James Bible
After it was published in 1611, the King James version of the Bible may have become the family’s favorite book. It was full of people, beasts, fishes, birds and of war, horror, love, death, and miracles. Its stories were about Kings and Princesses; about soldiers and shepherds and beggars; about the rich and the poor, the sick and the healthy, and the proud and the humble. It told of splendid feasts and bitter famine; of present joy and perennial sorrow; of the hopes of heaven and the horror of hell; of sowing and reaping; of good and bad harvest. It if hadn’t been for things like the desert, the Red Sea, cedar and olive trees, plants, people, and places with outlandish names, the Bible’s countryside could have been England. What happened in the Bible could so easily happen – and did happen – to its readers.
But were the children awed by the luminous quiet in St. Mary’s Deanery church in Bocking as they stood in the center aisle staring at the great leaded windows, tinted in jeweled greens, blues, and golds, deepened here and there by spots of translucent crimson? Or was the family already committed to the Puritan creed and considered the beautifully colored windows an idolatrous bauble left from the old days?
The Whipple children probably studied the shivery woodcuts of tortures and burnings during Queen Mary’s time in Foxe’s Acts and Monuments, the most widely circulated book in England after the Bible. If the family didn’t own a copy, they read it at St. Mary’s as it and the Bible were two of only four chained books in all cathedrals and parish churches in the land.
But how did they resolve the religious questions of that time? If Papists were bad, were all Protestants good? How could this be since there were two kinds of Protestants: those who had candles and a cross like in St. Mary’s and who bowed at the name of Jesus and who kept Saints’ days and Christmas; and Puritans who hated all those things and who relied only on the Word of God, and who worshiped several days a week in private homes.
Everyone talked religion. It was the subject in broadsides and newsletters. An individual might not approve of a particular religious group but he would not be indifferent. Almost everyone had a religious affiliation and defended it with all the warmth and vehemence that an age of religious controversy breeds in its people.
Charles I. 39 Articles of Religion for All Englishmen
Early in his reign, James’ son Charles I (1625-49) caused the Articles “for the avoiding of diversities of opinions, and for the establishing of consent touching true religion” agreed to in 1562, be reprinted. As Defender of the Faith and Supreme Governor of the Church, he acted to conserve and maintain the Church in the “unity of true religion” and to eliminate “unnecessary disputation, altercations, or questions which may nourish faction both in the Church and Commonwealth.”
He claimed the 1572 document (The Bishop’s Bible Revised) contained “the true Doctrine of the Church of England agreeable to God’s Word” and required “all our loving subjects to continue in the uniform profession thereof.?” While denying anyone the right to vary from the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England, he acknowledged “curious and unhappy differences” throughout the land. All were to submit “in the plain and full meaning thereof: and shall not put his own sense or comment to be the meaning of the Articles, but shall take it in the literal and grammatical sense.”
Puritanism was widespread by this time and its followers were enraged. Many determined they could no longer tolerate the restrictions on their right to freedom of religion and vowed to leave the land of Charles I. Following is what King Charles required of all residents of England:
The 39 Articles of Religion that the Whipples and all other Englishmen were to follow:
1. Of Faith in the Holy Trinity. There is but one living and true God, everlasting, without body, parts or passions; of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness; the Maker and Preserver of all things both visible and invisible. And in unity this Godhead there be three Persons, of one substance, power, and eternity; the Father, The Son, and the Holy Ghost.
2. Of the Word of Son of God, which was made very Man. The Son, which is the Word of the Father, begotten from everlasting of the Father, the very and eternal blessed Virgin, of her substances; so that two whole and perfect natures, that is to say, the Godhead and Manhood, were joined together in one Person, never to be divided, and whereof is one Christ, very God, and very Man; who truly suffered, was crucified, dead and buried, to reconcile his Father to us; and to be a sacrifice, hot only for original guilt, but also for all actual sins of men.
3. Of the going down of Christ into Hell. As Christ died for us, and was buried, so also it is to be believed that he went down into Hell.
4. Of the Resurrection of Christ. Christ did truly rise again from death, and took again his body with flesh, bones, and all things appertaining to the perfection of Man’s nature; where with he ascended into Heaven, and there sitteth, until he return to judge all Men at the last day.
5. Of the Holy Ghost. The Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son is of one substance, majesty, and glory, with the Father and the Son, very and eternal of God.
6. Of the Sufficiency of the holy Scriptures for salvation. Holy
scripture containth all things necessary to salvation; so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of the Faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation. In the name of the holy Scripture we do understand those Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament, of whose authority was never any doubt in the Church.
Of the Names and Numbers of the Canonical Books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, The First Book of Samuel, The Second Book of Samuel, the First Book of Kings, the Second Book of Kings, the First Book of Chronicles, the Second Book of Chronicles, the First Book of Esdras, the Second Book of Esdras, The Book of Esther, The Book of Job, The Psalms, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes or Preacher, Cantica, or Songs of Solomon, Four Prophets the greater, Twelve Prophets the less.
And the other Books (as Hierome saith) the Church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners; but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine; such are these following: The Third Book of Estras, the Fourth Book of Estras, The Book of Tobias, The Book of Judith, The rest of the Book of Esther, The Book of Wisdom, Jesus the Son of Sirach, Baruch the Prophet, The Song of Three Children, the Story of Susanna, of Bel and the Dragon, the Prayer of Manasses, The First Book of Macabees, The Second Book of Macabees.
All the Books of the New Testament, as they are commonly received, we do receive, and account them canonical.
7. Of the Old Testament. The Old Testament is not contrary to the New: for both in the Old and New Testament everlasting life is offered to Mankind by Christ, who is the only Mediator between God and Man, being both God and Man. Wherefore they are not to be heard, which feign that the old Fathers did look only for transitory promises. Although the Law given from God by Moses, as touching ceremonies and rites, do not bind Christian men, or the civil precepts thereof ought of necessity to be received in any commonwealth; yet notwithstanding, no Christian man whatsoever is free from the obedience of the Commandments which are called moral.
8. Of the Three Creeds. The Three Creeds, Nicene Creed, Athanasius’ Creed, and that which is commonly called the Apostles’ Creed, ought thoroughly to be received and believed: for they may be proved by most certain warrants of holy Scripture.
9. Of Original or Birth-sin. Original Sin standeth not in the following or Adam, (as the Pelagians do vainly talk;) but it is the fault and corruption of the Nature of every man, that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam; whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil, so that the flesh lusteth always contrary to the spirit: and therefore in every person born into this world, it deserveth God’s wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature doth remain, yea in them that are regenerated; whereby the list of the flesh, called in Greek , phronema sarkos, which some do expound the wisdom, some sensuality, some the affection, some the desire, of flesh, is not subject to the Law of God. And although here is no condemnation for them that believe and are baptized, yet the Apostle doth confess, that concupiscence and lust hath of itself the nature of sin.
10. Of Free-Will. The condition of Man after the fall of Adam is such, that he cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own natural strength and good works, to faith and calling upon God: Wherefore we have no power to do good works pleasant and acceptable to God, without the grace of God by Christ preventing us, that we may have a good will, and working with us, when we have that good will.
11. Of the Justification of Man. We are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ by Faith, and not for our own works or deserving: Wherefore, that we are justified by faith only in a most wholesome Doctrine, and very full of comfort, and more largely is expressed in the Homily of Justification.
12. Of Good Works. Albeit that Good Works, which are the fruits of Faith, and follow after Justification, cannot put away our sins, and endure the severity of God’s Judgment; yet are they pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ, and do spring out necessarily of a true and lively Faith; insomuch that by them a lively Faith may be as evidently known as a tree discerned by the fruit.
13. Of Works Before Justification. Works done before the grace of Christ, and the Inspiration of his Spirit, are not pleasant to God, forasmuch as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ, neither do they make men meet to receive grace, or (as the School-authors say) deserve grace of congruity: yea, rather, for that they are not done as God hath willed and commanded them to be done, we doubt not but they have the nature of sin.
14. Of Works of Supererogation. Voluntary Works besides, over and above, God’s Commandments, which they call Works of Supererogation, cannot be taught without arrogancy and impiety: for by them men do declare, that they do not only render unto God as such as they are bound to do, but that they do more for his sake, than of bounden duty is required: whereas Christ saith plainly, When ye have done all that are commanded to you, say, We are unprofitable servants.
15. Of Christ Along Without Sin. Christ in the truth of our nature was made like unto us in all things, sin only except, from which he was clearly void, both in his flesh and in his spirit. He came to be the Lamb without spot, who, by sacrifice of himself once made, should take away the sins of the world, and sin as Saint John saith, was not in him. But all we the rest, although baptized, and born again in Christ, yet offend in many things; and if we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.
16. Os Sin After Baptism. Not every deadly sin willingly committed after Baptism is sin against the Holy Ghost and unpardonable. Wherefore the grant of repentance is not to be denied to such as fall into sin after Baptism. After we have received the Holy Ghost, we may depart from grace given and fall into sin and by the grace of God we may arise again, and amend our lives. And therefore they are to be condemned, which say, they can no more sin as long as they live here, or deny the place of forgiveness to such as truly repent.
17. Of Predestination and Election. Predestination to Life is the everlasting purpose of God, whereby (before the foundations of the world were laid) he hath constantly decreed by his counsel secret to us, to deliver from curse and damnation those whom he hath chosen in Christ out of mankind, and to bring them by Christ to everlasting salvation, as vessels made to honour. Wherefore, they which he endued with so excellent a benefit of God be called according to God’s purpose by his Spirit working in due season: they through Grace obey the calling: they be justified freely: they be made sons of God by adoption: they be made like the image of his only-begotten Son Jesus Christ: they walk religiously in good works, and at length, by God’s mercy then attain to everlasting felicity.
As the godly consideration of Predestination, and our Election in Christ, is full of sweet, pleasant, and unspeakable comfort to godly persons, and such as feel in themselves the workings of the Spirit of Christ, mortifying the works of the flesh, and their earthly members, and drawing up their mind to high and heavenly things, as well because it doth greatly establish and confirm their faith of eternal Salvation to be enjoyed through Christ, as because it doth fervently kindle their love toward God: So for curious and carnal persons, lacking the Spirit of Christ, to have continually before their eyes the sentence of God’s Predestination, is a most dangerous downfall, whereby the devil doth thrust them either into desperation, or into wretchlessness of most unclean living, no less perilous than desperation.
Furthermore, we must receive God’s promises in such wise, as they be generally set forth to us in Holy Scripture: and, in our doings, that Will of God is to be followed, which we have expressly declared unto us in the Word of God.
18. Of Obtaining Eternal Salvation Only By the Name of Christ. They also are to be had accursed that presume to say, that every man shall be saved by the Law or Sect which he professeth, so that he be diligent to frame his life according to that Law, and the light of Nature. For Holy Scripture doth set out unto us only the Name of Jesus Christ, whereby men must be saved.
19. Of the Church. The visible Church of Christ is a congregation of faithful men, in the which the pure Word of God is preached, and the Sacraments be duly ministered according to Christ’s ordinance in all those things that of necessity are requisite to the same. As the Church of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch, have erred; so also the Church of Rome hath erred, not only in their living and manner of Ceremonies, but also in matters of Faith.
20. Of the Authority of the Church. The Church hath power to decree Rites or Ceremonies, and authority in Controversies of Faith: And yet it is not lawful for the Church to ordain anything that is contrary to God’s Word written, neither may it so expound one place of Scripture, that it be repugnant to another. Wherefore, although the Church be a witness and a keeper of Holy Writ, yet as it ought not to decree anything against the same, so besides the same ought it not to enforce any thing to be believed for necessity of Salvation.
21. Of the Authority of General Councils. General Councils may not be gathered together without the commandment and will of Princes. And when they be gathered together (forasmuch as they be an assembly of men, whereof all be not governed with the “Spirit and Word of God,) they may err, and sometimes have erred, even in things pertaining unto God. Wherefore things ordained by them as necessary to salvation have neither strength nor authority, unless it may be declared that they be taken out of Holy Scripture.
22. Of Purgatory. The Romish Doctrine concerning purgatory, pardons, Worshiping and Adoration, as well of Images as of Reliques, and also invocation of Saints, if a fond thing vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of Scriptures, but rather repugnant to the Word of God.
23. Of Ministering in the Congregation. It is not lawful for any man to take upon him the office of public preaching, or ministering the Sacraments in the Congregation, before he be lawfully called, and sent to execute the same. And those we ought to judge lawfully called and sent, which be chosen and called to this work by men who have public authority given unto them in the Congregation, to call and send Ministers into the Lord’s vineyard.
24. Of Speaking in the Congregation in such a Tongue as the people understandeth. It is a thing plainly repugnant to the Word of God, and the custom of Primitive Church to have public Prayer in the Church, or to minister the Sacraments in a tongue not understanded of the people.
25. Of the Sacraments. Sacraments ordained by Christ be not only badges or tokens of Christian men’s profession, but rather they be certain sure witnesses, and effectual signs of grace, and God’s good will toward us, by the which he doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also strengthen and confirm our Faith in him.
There are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord. Those five commonly called Sacraments that is to say Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and extreme Unction, are not to be counted for Sacraments of the Gospel, being such as have grown partly of the corrupt following of the Apostles, partly are states of life allowed in the Scriptures; but yet have not like nature of Sacraments with Baptism, and the Lord’s Supper, for that they have not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God.
The Sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be gazed upon, or to be carried about, but that we should duly use them. And in such only as worthily receive the same they have a wholesome effect or operation: but they that receive them unworthily purchase to themselves damnation, as Saint Paul said.
26. Of the Unworthiness of the Ministers, which hinders not the effect of the Sacrament. Although in the visible Church the evil be ever mingled with the good, and sometimes the evil have chief authority in the Ministration of the Word and Sacraments, yet forasmuch as they do not the same in their own name, but in Christ’s, and do minister by his commission and authority, we may use their Ministry, both in hearing the Word of God, and in the receiving of the Sacraments. Neither is the effect of Christ’s ordinance taken away by their wickedness, nor the grace of God’s gifts diminished from such as by faith and rightly do receive the Sacraments ministered unto them which be effectual, because of Christ’s institution and promise, although they be ministered by evil men.
Nevertheless, it appertaineth to the discipline of the Church, that enquiry be made of evil Ministers, and that they be accused by those that have knowledge of their offenses; and finally bring found guilty, by just judgment be deposed.
27. Of Baptism. Baptism is not only a sign of profession, and mark of difference, whereby Christian men are discerned from others that be not christened, but it is also a sign of Regeneration or new Birth, whereby, as by an instrument, they that receive Baptism rightly are grafted into the Church; the promises of the forgiveness of sin, and of our adoption to the sons of God by the Holy Ghost, are visibly, signed and sealed; Faith is confirmed, and Grace increased by the virtue of prayer unto God. The Baptism of young Children is in any wise to be retained in the Church, as most agreeable with the institution of Christ.
28. Of the Lord’s Supper. The Supper of the Lord is not only a sign of the love that Christians ought to have among themselves to another but rather it is a Sacrament of our Redemption by Christ’s death: insomuch that to such as rightly, worthily, and with faith, receive the same, the Bread which we break is a partaking of the Body of Christ; and likewise the Cup of Blessing is a partaking of the Blood of Christ.
Transubstantiation (or the change of the substance of Bread and Wine) in the Supper of the Lord, cannot be proved by Holy Writ; but it is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a Sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions.
The Body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten, in the Supper, only after an heavenly and spiritual manner. And the mean whereby the Body of Christ is received and eaten in the Supper is Faith
The Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper was not by Christ’s ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshiped.
29. Of the Wicked which eat not the Body of Christ in the use of the Lord’s Supper. The Wicked, and such as be void of a lively faith, although they do carnally and visibly press with their teeth (as Saint Augustine saith) the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, yet in no wise are they partakers of Christ: but rather, to their condemnation, do eat and drink the sign or Sacrament of so great a thing.
30. Of both Kinds. The Cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the Lay-people: for both are parts of the Lord’s Sacrament, by Christ’s ordinance and commandment, out to be ministered to all Christian men alike.
31. Of the one Oblation of Christ finished upon the Cross. The Offering of Christ once made is that perfect redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction, for all the sins of the whole world, both original and actual; and there is no other satisfaction for sin, but that alone. Wherefore the sacrifices of Masses, in the which it was commonly said, that the Priest did offer Christ for the quick and the dead, to have remission of pain or guilt, were blasphemous fables, and dangerous deceits.
32. Of the Marriage of Priests. Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, are not commanded by God’s Law, either to vow the estate of single life, or to abstain from marriage; therefore it is lawful also for them , as for all other Christian men to marry at their own discretion, as they shall judge the same to serve better to godliness.
33. Of Excommunicate Persons, how they are to be avoided. That person which by open denunciation of the Church is rightly cut off from the unity of the Church, and excommunicated, ought to be taken of the whole multitude of the faithful, as in Heathen and Publican, until he be openly reconciled by penance, and received into the church by a Judge that hath authority thereunto.
34. Of the Traditions of the Church. It is not necessary that Traditions and Ceremonies be in all places one, or utterly like; for at all times they have been divers, and may be changed according to the diversities of countries, times, and man’s manners, so that nothing be ordained against God’s Word. Whatsoever though his private judgment, willingly and purposely, doth openly break the traditions and ceremonies of the church, which be not repugnant to the Word of God, and be ordained and approved by common authority, ought to be rebuked openly, (that others may fear to do the like,) as he that offendeth against the common order of the church, and hurteth the authority of the Magistrate, and woundeth the consciences of the weak brethren.
Every particular or national church hath authority to ordain, change, and abolish, ceremonies or rites of the Church ordained only my man’s authority, so that all things be done to edifying.
35. Of Homilies. The second Book of Homilies, the several titles whereof we have joined under this Article, doth contain a godly and wholesome Doctrine, and necessary for these times, as doth the former Book of Homilies, which were set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth; and therefore we judge them to be read in churches by the Ministers, diligently and distinctly, that they may be underrstanded of the people. Of the Names of the Homilies: 1. Of the right Use of the Church. 2. Against perils of Idolatry. 3. Of the repairing and keeping clean of Churches. 4. Of good Works: first of Fasting. 5. Against Gluttony and Drunkenness. 6. Against Excess of Apparel. 7. Of Prayer. 8. Of the Place and Time of Prayer. 9. That Common Prayers and Sacraments ought to be ministered in a known tongue. 10. Of the reverend estimation of God’s Word. 11. Of Alms-doing. 12. Of the Nativity of Christ. 13. Of the Passion of Christ. 14. Of the Resurrection of Christ. 15. Of the worthy receiving of the Sacraments of the Body and Blood of Christ. 16. Of the Gifts of the Holy Ghost. 17. For the Rogation-days. 18. Of the state of Matrimony. 19. Of Repentance. 20. Against Idleness. 21. Against Rebellion.
36. Of Consecration of Bishops and Ministers. The Book of Consecration of Archbishops and Bishops, and Ordering of Priests and Deacons, lately set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth, and confirmed at the same time by authority of Parliament, doth contain all things necessary to such consecration and Ordering: neither hath it any thing, that of itself is superstitious and ungodly. And therefore whosoever are consecrated or ordered according to the Rites of that Book, since the second year of the forenamed King Edward unto this time, or hereafter shall be consecrated or ordered according to the same Rites; we decree all such to be rightly, orderly, and lawfully consecrated and ordered.
37. Of the Civil Magistrates. The King’s Majesty hath the chief power in this Realm of England, and other his Dominions, unto whom the chief Government of all estates of this Realm, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Civil, in all causes doth appertain, and is not, nor ought to be, subject to any foreign Jurisdiction.
Where we attributed to the King’s Majesty the chief government, by which titles we understand the minds of some slanderous folks to be offended; we give not to our Princes the ministering either of God’s Word, or of the Sacraments, the which thing the Injunctions also lately set forth by Elizabeth our Queen do most plainly testify; but that only prerogative which we see to have been given always to all godly Princes in Holy Scriptures by God himself; that is, that they should rule all estates and degrees committed to their charge by God, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Temporal, and restrain with the civil sword the stubborn and evil-doers.
The Bishop of Rome hath no jurisdiction in this Realm of England.
The Laws of the Realm may punish Christian men with death, for heinous and grievous offenses.
It is lawful for Christian men, at the commandment of the Magistrate, to wear weapons and serve in the wars.
38. Of Christian Men’s Goods, which are not common. The Riches and Goods of Christians are not common, as touching the right, title, and possession of the same, as certain Anabaptists do falsely boast. Notwithstanding, every man ought, of such things as he possesseth, liberally to give alms to the poor, according to his ability.
39. Of a Christian Man’s Oath. As we confess that vain and rash Swearing is forbidden Christian men by our Lord Jesus Christ, and James his Apostle, so we judge that Christian Religion doth not prohibit, but that a man may swear when the Magistrate requireth, in a cause of faith and charity, so it be done according to the Prophet’s teaching, in justice, judgment, and truth.
The Ratification. This Book of Articles before rehearsed, is again approved, and allowed to be holden and executed within the Realm, by the assent and consent of our Sovereign Lady Elizabeth by the grace of God, and England, France, and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the Faith, &c. Which Articles were deliberately read and confirmed again by the subscription of the hands of the Archbishop and Bishops of the Upper-house, and by the subscription of the whole Clergy of the Nether-house in their Convocation, in the Year of our Lord 57.
A Table of Kindred and Affinity wherein whosoever are related are forbidden to the Church of England to marry together. The list was included in the Articles.
TO BE CONTINUED WITH A DISCUSSION OF PURITANISM